In 2015, a baby girl in Hong Kong was born with two fetuses in her body. The two fetuses were later surgically removed from between her liver and kidney when she was 3 weeks old.1
The child was definitely too young to have conceived the twins by herself. The most likely explanation was that the “pregnant” girl was one of a set of triplets who, at some time during the gestation, absorbed her two siblings, much like what happens in vanishing twin syndrome.
About 2000 years earlier, another young girl was found to have a singleton fetus in her pelvis. The young girl was Hebrew (Jewish), engaged to be married, and here’s the catch – she hadn’t had sex with anyone before! The young girl (an almah, in Hebrew terms) was probably not any older than 12 years and 6 months old when her pregnancy was discovered, because Jewish fathers in ancient times commonly married off their daughters before that age for legal and economic reasons.2
This is the scandal story of a man named Joseph who found his young fiancee Mary pregnant with a baby not his own. If you were Joseph, what kind of story would you buy?
Before we answer any questions, here’s a summary for those who are unfamiliar with this “scandal story”:
“Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Mary who never had sex before. Mary was engaged to be married to a man named Joseph.
“One day, Mary was visited by the angel Gabriel who told her that she would conceive a baby boy who will be great, and reign as King forever and ever.
“Mary asked the angel: ‘How am I gonna get pregnant since I’ve never had sex?’ The angel told her, ‘Holy Spirit will make you pregnant’. Mary agrees.
“Joseph finds out about the pregnancy. Knowing he is not the father of the baby but wanting to protect Mary, Joseph plans to divorce Mary quietly.
“However, an angel appears to Joseph in a dream and says, ‘Joseph, it was God who made Mary pregnant. Don’t be afraid to take her as your wife.’ Joseph then cancels his plans for divorce.
“Sometime later, Joseph takes a pregnant Mary to his hometown – Bethlehem, coz Augustus Caesar ordered everyone under his governance to register in their hometown for his census. Since everyone was traveling, there was no more room for humans in Bethlehem inns. So Mary gave birth and laid Jesus in a manger for animals.
“The end (or so you think).”
And that story above is just the gist of the drama.
If you ask a devoted Christian, “How is it possible for Mary to get pregnant without having sex?” They will probably say: “Through the Holy Spirit.”
Then comes the next question, “How do you know it was really the Holy Spirit?”
Before and after Jesus was born, there have been many tales of virgin births, including stories of Romulus and Remus, Dionysus, Ra, and Attis in Roman, Greek and Egyptian mythology. So what makes Jesus so special? Really, how do we know that Mary conceived Jesus via the Holy Spirit, and not by any man, including Joseph, not even via a scientific work of wonder like parthenogenesis?
For one, we can rule out Joseph, Mary’s “fiancé” as the biological father.
JOSEPH COULD HAVE GOTTEN MARY KILLED AS PUNISHMENT FOR ADULTERY
Question 1: How do we know that Joseph was not the one who impregnated Mary with Jesus?
Joseph’s nature of response to Mary’s pregnancy indicates that he was much unlikely to be the father.
Mary was “betrothed” to Joseph when she was “found to be with child from the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 1:18). Being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, Joseph resolved to divorce her quietly. (Matthew 1: 19)
Now, we have to be clear about the relationship status between Joseph and Mary when Jesus was conceived and born.
According to scripture, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary, she was betrothed to Joseph (Luke 1:27). Fast forward to 8-10 months later, Mary was still betrothed to Joseph when she traveled with him to Bethlehem for a registration under decree by Caesar Augustus. The Greek verb “mnēsteuō” is translated identically in both verses.
In both of the verses above, “mnēsteuō” is translated from the Hebrew verb “aras” – a Jewish marriage practice in which the groom contractually pays a bride-price to his virgin bride’s father. According to the Mishnah Ketubot 5.2, this final step in the courtship process would last a year, with the virgin bride remaining in the home of her father while being legally married to her husband. This twelve months would be used to prepare for both the wedding and the marriage – for the bride to prepare not only her apparel and accessories for the big day, but also the house they will live in together after that big day.
According to Jewish law, Mary was legally more than a fiancée to Joseph. She was legally Joseph’s WIFE, but waiting to leave her father’s house as of Jewish custom of courtship. This would explain Mary being a virgin, despite already being married to Joseph (Luke 1:34), and this would explain why Joseph and Mary could travel together alone, as a married couple, to be registered in Joseph’s hometown (Luke 2:1-5)
What difference would it make if Joseph called off his relationship with Mary if they were engaged or married during Jesus’ conception? Well, if they were only agreeing to get married (our modern day equivalent of engagement) with not yet any legal bindings, all Joseph had to do was say to Mary: “Let’s break up, forget our wedding. Instead, you can go discuss wedding plans with your lover who made you pregnant … and remind your lover to pay your dad fifty shekels of silver, okay?”
In the Old Testament, a man who seizes and lies with a virgin who is not yet betrothed has to pay the father of the virgin fifty shekels of silver to make her his wife, and they cannot be divorced. (Deuteronomy 22:28-29) This probably serves as a stern reminder to the men that they cannot sleep with a woman if they aren’t prepared to care and provide for her for the rest of their lives.
However, the fact that Joseph and Mary were already “mnēsteuō” means that Joseph had probably already paid a substantial sum of money to Mary’s father to reach the final stage of getting married. This also means that Joseph could have called his legal wife Mary out in public, and have her stoned to death for adultery according to Old Testament law (Deuteronomy 22:23-24).
Instead of setting up drama for Mary as revenge, Joseph chose to protect her welfare. If Joseph had slept with Mary before, he would have expected the baby to be his, and not think of divorcing her.
Do you think Joseph could have had sex with Mary before moving in together at the end of twelve months, and being ashamed that someone found out about it, chose to divorce her?
I should think not. Why? Because in ancient Jewish culture, grooms who had sexual relations with their bride-to-be in the bride’s father’s house were deemed not guilty of any sexual immorality.3 Since Joseph planned to divorce Mary upon knowing her pregnancy, it is obvious that he knew he was certainly not the father.
In fact, 30 years later, people probably weren’t questioning Jesus’ paternity or wondering who impregnated Mary while she was living away from Joseph. They simply thought Jesus was Joseph and Mary’s firstborn son – nothing abnormal about this right? (Matthew 13:55, John 6:42)
2) Okay, now what about the possibility of Mary sleeping with another man instead of Joseph?
That would definitely be physically possible, but if it were true, I don’t think she would lie about it to the angel Gabriel: (Luke 1: 26-38).
Because angels are holy, wise and strong creatures who were feared by both Jews and non-Jews in ancient Israel (Luke 2:9, Matthew 28:1-7) to the point that when they did appear, their popular catchphrase was “Fear Not” (Genesis 21:1-21; Matthew 28:1-7; Luke 1:1-13, 2:1-12, 9:26, 20:35-36; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalm 103:20; Revelation 5:11-12; Acts 8:26; Daniel 10:8-19)
Jewish people knew the consequences of not taking an angel seriously:
- One angel to kill 185,000 Assyrians (2 Kings 19:35)
- One angel to kill 70,000 men from Dan to Beersheba (2 Samuel 24:15-16)
- Two angels struck the men of Sodom with blindness when they stalked the angels for sexual intercourse (Genesis 19: 1-10)
In the Bible when angels spoke about a child/ children to be born, there is often a mention of who the father was, with God’s favour present. Gabriel telling Mary that she would conceive via the Holy Spirit shows how different her conception was compared to:
- Abram (would become Abraham later) and Hagar who would produce a strong, independent offspring unlike servile Hagar(Genesis 16:7-16)
- Abraham and Sarah though they were advanced in years (Genesis 17:16, 18:10-14)
- Elkanah and Hannah though Hannah was barren for years (1 Samuel 1:1-20)
Through such cultural and spiritual context, it would be unlikely that Mary had slept with any man before when Mary asked the angel Gabriel, “How will this be (conceive in your womb and bear a son), since I am a virgin?”
3) How do we know that Mary’s encounter with Angel Gabriel wasn’t an episode of psychosis?
Because Mary’s encounter with Angel Gabriel does not fulfill the modern DSM 5 criteria for a brief psychotic disorder.
What is DSM-5? It’s the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – an authoritative volume published by the American Psychiatric Association that defines and classifies mental disorders.4
According to DSM-5 (Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria), in order for an event to be classified as a brief psychotic disorder, there must be the presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms. At least one of these must be (1), (2) or (3): 5
- Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
- Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
We know Mary was not delusive/grandiose about being mother of the Saviour because her special role was confirmed through:
- Elizabeth (Mary’s relative and mother of John the Baptist) (Luke 1:39-45)
- angel of the Lord appearing to Joseph in a dream (Matthew 1:18-25)
- Simeon, the righteous and devout man (Luke 2:25-35)
- Anna the prophetess (Luke 2:36-38)
AND most importantly, Jesus’ special role was confirmed by God Himself (Matthew 3: 13-17, 17:1-5; Mark 9:2-7; Luke 3:21-22; 9:28-36; 2 Peter 1:16-18)
We know Mary was not hallucinating, as from Luke 1:26-38:
- Mary was not going to sleep or getting up from sleep, ruling out a hypnogogic or hypnopompic episode
- Mary was not under “strong drink” aka alcohol or on any herbs/ medicinal plants with hallucinogenic properties
- Unlike figures in hallucinations that show up telling untruths/ things that may impair the individual’s daily function (hence, the name: mental disorder), Angel Gabriel actually helped improve the relationship between Mary and her relative Elizabeth.
Gabriel told Mary something true that she didn’t know at first: “your relative Elizabeth is 6 months pregnant” (Luke 1:36).
A pregnant Mary then visited a pregnant Elizabeth, most probably as a mutual support during their unlikely pregnancies. When Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, her baby (John) leaped in her (Elizabeth’s) womb. (Luke 1: 41). The first responses of a baby in the womb to acoustic stimuli occur at 24 weeks gestation, equivalent to 6 months, which is Elizabeth’s period of gestation. In fact, by 6 months of pregnancy, mothers should feel their babies moving, and such is the case of Elizabeth. Gabriel’s statement of the gestation age of John the Baptist in Elizabeth’s womb.6, 7
After ruling out possibilities of (1) and (2), we can also see that Mary’s interaction with Angel Gabriel consisted of coherent, sensible and organized speech. (Luke 1: 26-38)
4) Hey … do you think it was possible for God to become a Man to impregnate Mary?
The assumption that Jesus was the physical product of God and Mary might stem from the term “Son of God” (Matthew 16:13-17, John 20:30-31, 1 John 2:22-23) and also “Holy Spirit will come upon you” (Luke 1:35)
Evidence that the Godhead – God the Father and the Son and Holy Spirit existed together is present in Genesis 1:2, 26-27. Here we see God alone working at creation when he says “Let US make man in our image.” Besides, this is confirmed in Deuteronomy 6:4 when it says “The LORD is one.” The Hebrew term translated as one is “echad” which is sometimes used as a symbol for unity.8 We see God not as a singular, but as a Godhead “team” working together in the beginning of time to create all of creation – God the Son was already busy CREATING with God the Father in the beginning of time, rather than being CREATED.
God omnipotent is definitely capable of taking on the form of an adult male any time He pleases (Genesis 18). However, let me convince you that sexual intercourse between God omnipotent and Mary to CREATE God the Son is ABSOLUTELY NOT the case.
Being a “Son of God” does not necessarily refer to a physical, blood-line relationship from the result of God having intercourse with a woman to produce an offspring. It is rather, a description of the close relationship, and unity, between God the Father and God the Son.
God omnipotent could certainly bring human beings into existence however and whenever He pleases – see how He makes fully functioning human bodies from dust, rock and dry bones (Genesis 2:7, Matthew 3:9, Ezekiel 37:1-14). If God wanted to create a human being he could easily have done so without Himself or anyone else engaging in intercourse – He has the power and authority to supply any being with Adam or Abraham or Joseph’s Y chromosome without any of them having sexual intercourse.
“Come upon you” sounds like a sexual euphemism to some. However, this same term is seen in other parts of the Bible also written by the same author, Dr. Luke – Luke 2:25 and Acts 1:8 – which describes instances where a person has been bestowed the favour, gift and prophecy of the Holy Spirit. In Mary’s case, it is the favour of conceiving and giving birth to the Son of God without sexual intercourse.
Besides, since Jesus is fully God and fully man (John 1:14), he can’t be having half of God’s DNA and half of Mary’s DNA, or he would be some kind of hybrid, like a demigod … would he not?
5) I read that in the Bible that Mary was born via an immaculate conception making her fully Holy. Would it not then be possible for God to impregnate Mary who is also fully God, and give birth to a son who is also fully God?
This depends on which Bible you are reading.
I believe you must be referring to the Apocrypha’s description of Mary’s immaculate conception in her mother Anne’s womb, making Anne a Virgin Mother just like her daughter Mary (Protoevangelium of James/ Infancy Gospel of James 4:4,9)
The Apocrypha (meaning “those having been hidden away”) is a set of approximately 40 books and additions to scripture considered by some scholars to be part (or “extension”) of the Bible, and by others, not. Why would the others beg to differ? Because the Apocrypha was written during the 400 year period between the Old Testament and New Testament when God was silent. 9
The Apocrypha is a blessing in terms of advice for marriage (book of Tobit) and prayer out of faith and love for others (book of Maccabees), however, due to lack of validity of sources, I would be skeptical about all chronicles from the Apocrypha including:
- the description of Joseph as an elderly widower when he “guarded” (not married) a preteen Mary (Protoevangelium of James),
- the Angel of Repentance giving Hermas 12 commandments (Shepherd of Hermas),
- Jesus calming dragons before adjourning to Egypt with a group of wild animals (Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew),
- and many more.
Therefore, I would refrain from proclaiming that Mary was born free of sin.
6) This word “virgin” looks suspicious to me. Christians believe that Jesus’ birth via Mary, a virgin, in the New testament (Matthew 1: 18-25, Luke 1:34, 2:7) was a fulfilment of the Old Testament prophecy on a “virgin shall conceive” (Isaiah 7:14).
Problem is: the Greek term used by the New Testament was “parthenos” which means “virgin”, but the Hebrew translation in the Old Testament was “almah” which simply means “young girl”.
Could it be possible that Mary was simply a “young girl” who may have had sexual experience, whom Matthew and Luke had mistaken for the “virgin”?
Not at all. Both Matthew and Luke knew their references, and they were convinced Jesus was definitely born of a female who never had sex, exactly what the Isaiah’s prophecy had intended to mean.
You see, the Prophet Isaiah prophesied in Hebrew that an almah will conceive a son. Hundreds of years later, this Hebrew text was translated to Greek in what we know as the Septuagint – the Greek translation of the Old Testament. In the Septuagint, it was carefully translated that the girl conceiving Jesus would be a parthenos – a virgin.
200 years after the Septuagint was compiled, Mary conceived Jesus, fulfilling the exact prophecy that a “parthenos will conceive”. When Matthew and Luke wrote that Jesus’ birth was a fulfilment of Isaiah 7:14, they were quoting the Septuagint, which had carefully translated from the Hebrew text exactly what it was supposed to mean – that the almah (young unmarried girl)who conceived Jesus is a virgin (Gen 24:43, Ex 2:8, Ps 68:25).
Professor Andre LaCocque, Professor of Old Testament Emeritus at Chicago Theological Seminary, has stated in his book “Jesus the Central Jew” that there are three Hebrew descriptions for young girls:
- bethulah (virgin)
- na’arah (girl between 12 to 12 and a half years old), and
- almah (young girl)
All the above 3 terms describe a virgin but also a girl unable to conceive although married because she is not yet pubescent. 10
Note that two people who wrote about Jesus’ Virgin Birth in the Bible are no simpletons – one is Matthew who was chosen by the Romans to become their publican/tax collector (Matthew 9:9, 10:3), and the other was Luke, Paul’s “beloved physician”, a doctor (Colossians 4:14), who authored both the Book of Luke and Book of Acts in the Bible.
If you are looking for a doctor’s verification of the health and physical aspects of Bible characters, Dr. Luke is the man. He penned the following in detail:
- Movement of a 6 month old foetus in the womb (Elizabeth being pregnant with John – Luke 1:41)
- circumcision of Jesus (Luke 2:21)
- purification of blood post parturition of Mary and her baby 40 days after Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:22, Leviticus 12:2-4)
- specific medical descriptions of the ”patients” Jesus healed:
- a man with dropsy (or edema): Luke 14:1
- a woman who was bent over (kyphosis): Luke 13:11-17
- descriptions of hematohidrosis (sweating of blood) experienced by Jesus while He was praying before he was crucified (Luke 22:44)
Dr. Luke is also careful in non-medical “history taking”: It was once debated why Luke would mention Lysanias as “tetrarch of Abilene” in about AD 27 (Luke 3:1). Lysanias was supposed to be the ruler of Chalcis half a century earlier, not a tetrarch! However, later it was found an inscription from the time of Tiberius which names Lysanias as tetrarch in Abila from AD14-29 near Damascus. There were two government officials named Lysanias. Even the politarchs in Acts 17:6 were confirmed to be true in history from 35 different inscriptions. 11, 12
There had to be a good reason for an educated doctor willing to look stupid when making the claim: “Yes, this girl (Mary) never had sex when she conceived this baby.” The only plausible reason for Dr. Luke to risk his reputation over such a claim … is that the claim is true and sure.
In such a case, we can safely conclude that the prophecy that Jesus would be conceived by a virgin, was indeed fulfilled by a virgin named Mary.
7) Some animals reproduce via parthenogenesis – a scientific phenomenon where a female produces an offspring without the intervention of a male. Do you think this could have happened in the case of Jesus’ “Virgin Birth”?
No. Because parthenogenesis does happen in human females, but the product is not viable for life.
The scientific word “parthenogenesis” translates literally as “virgin origin” or “virgin birth”. It is a phenomenon that occurs in several vertebrates and non-vertebrates to produce viable offspring, however, no mammal has yet to produce a viable offspring solely via parthenogenesis without a sexual partner.
Science has a name for parthenogenesis in human females: teratoma.
Ovarian teratomas are basically lumps of flesh, teeth and hair, the result of spontaneous haphazard cell multiplication. Sometimes the teratomas have head or limbs, but the child is not viable for life because of imperfect differentiation of cells. In the rare occasions that a product of parthenogenetic conception is viable, there is to be found an intervention of gametes from a father.
Besides, the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene cannot be expressed appropriately without a male sex cell aka sperm. This is because both male and female gametes are required for expression and suppression of the IGF2 gene, which controls the development of a foetus. Without the intervention of a father, a baby in the womb is unable to grow properly. 13, 14
Mary is likely to fail the Virginity Test in the Old Testament.Deuteronomy 22
8) Is there some kind of test we can do to prove Mary’s virginity?
There is no test available clinically, but in the Bible in Deuteronomy there speaks of a “virginity test” that one may suggest. But Mary will most probably fail that test if you use it on her.
In the book of Deuteronomy, just before the statement of law for different occasions of adultery, there is a Virginity Test (Deuteronomy 22:13-21). The test requires the accused young woman to present the bedsheets from her wedding night which are stained with blood from the tearing of her hymen during her first penetration.
Note: Looking at the horrible punishment inflicted on the accuser in Deuteronomy 22:18 if the accusation is found to be false, this passage was likely more of a deterrent to the men from putting a woman to shame for no good reason, rather than a hard and fast rule for determining a woman’s virginity. Note that a woman’s state of virginity in Mishnah Ketubot 1:3 is not foolproof – a virgin is a woman with an intact hymen – which means a woman who was “hit by a stick” a.k.a sustained injury to her hymen from something other than intercourse is considered not a virgin.
Some Christians believe that Jesus was born seemingly by teleportation out of Mary’s womb after a great light appeared (Protoevangelium of James 19:15-16), thus the theory that Mary remained a perpetual virgin after Jesus’ birth. However, Luke 2:22 testifies that Mary had a “purification” – this means she had to clean up her blood from a vaginal delivery. This also means that Mary’s hymen broke during parturition. There is not going to be hymenal bleed if she undergoes the virginity test in Deuteronomy 22. The only bleed she may have during intercourse with Joseph would be considered otyom, or having menstruation blood on an examination cloth immediately after intercourse. 15
This means Mary’s virginity test would yield an unreliable results – like how a man’s high prostate antigen would be high after his rectum has been stimulated by a per rectal prior to the test 16, or how a boy can yield a positive pregnancy test due to high human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in his urine.17
So … Can a Virgin Conceive? Straightforward answer: Unlikely. And if it does happen, it happens due to medical or divine intervention. In Mary’s case, it is the latter.
Christians worship a God who humbled Himself when he could have been exalted.
The same Jesus who came riding to his death on a donkey is the same God who plays with fire-breathing, scaly sea creatures called Leviathans.
The same God of the universe who clothed Himself in light allowed himself to be covered in sheep and cow smell in a manger.
The same God who could reign as King in Heaven allowed himself to be restrained by the mortal limitations – hunger and temptation, and more.
The ones who follow this King will also face the limitations of the flesh – eg: they may face the health risks and economic implications of the Covid-19 pandemic – but they have something special – they have a God who will never leave them.
Will you accept this King as LORD and Saviour?
If you would like to accept Jesus as your personal LORD and Saviour, here’s a short prayer you could follow: “Lord Jesus, I believe You died for my sins. I repent of my sins and ask for Your forgiveness. I am willing to turn from my way and follow Your way. I receive You now as my personal Saviour and Lord and invite You to manage my life from this day forward. Amen.”
If you have made the decision to accept Jesus as your personal LORD and Saviour, do kindly keep in contact with others who are already in the journey. We would like you to join us in growing together, in encouraging and strengthening and correcting one another out of concern for one another’s welfare. One way to do such is to contact Full Gospel Assembly Kuala Lumpur at 03-7981 4755, visit our website at www.fga.my, or visit our Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/fga.my/
Have a Blessed Christmas!
- Ghose T. Baby Born Pregnant with Her Own Twins [Internet]. New York: Future US Inc; 2015 Feb 10 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.livescience.com/49766-baby-pregnant-twins.html
- Shupac J. Early Marriages Seen In Talmudic Times, Expert Says [Internet]. Canada: Canadian Jewish News; 2015 Nov 20 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.cjnews.com/featured/jewish-learning/early-marriages-seen-in-talmudic-times-expert-says
- Cohick L. The Real Problem with Mary’s Baby Bump [Internet]. Unknown: Christianity Today; 2009 Dec 18 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2009/decemberweb-only/real-problem-with-marys-baby-bump.html
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [Internet]. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm
- American Psychiatric Association. Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-5.1st Edition of the 5th Edition of DSM. Bangkok: iGroup Press Co., Ltd.; 2013. 47-48 p.
- Symonds I, Sir Arulkumaran S, Symonds EM. Essential Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 5th ed. China: Elsevier; 2013. 51 p.
- NHS. Your Baby’s Movements [Internet]. Unknown: Crown; 2018 June 21 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/baby-movements-pregnant/#:~:text=You%20should%20start%20to%20feel,movements%20until%20after%2020%20weeks
- Sumner P. “Echad” in the Shema. [Internet]. Unknown: Hebrew Streams; Unknown [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: http://www.hebrew-streams.org/works/hebrew/echad.html
- The ESV Study Bible, English Standard Version (ESV). 2nd Edition. United States of America: Crossway Bibles; 2008. 1783, 2581-2583 p.
- LaCocque A. Jesus the Central Jew: His Times and His People. Atlanta: SBL Press; 2015. 187 p.
- Strobel L. The Case for Christ. Michigan: Zondervan; 1998. 129-131 p.
- Boa K. How Accurate is the Bible? [Internet]. Atlanta: Reflections Ministries; Unknown [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://kenboa.org/apologetics/how-accurate-is-the-bible
- Jose de Carli G, Pereira TC. On human parthenogenesis, Medical Hypotheses,Volume 106, 2017, 57-60 p. ISSN 0306-9877, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2017.07.008., http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987717302694
- Medline Plus. IGF2 Gene [Internet]. Unknown: Medline Plus; Unknown [updated 2020 August 18; cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/igf2/#synonyms
- Steinsaltz RAE-I. William Davidson Edition – English of the Koren Noé Talmud [Internet]. Unknown: Sefaria; Unknown [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.sefaria.org/Niddah.14a?lang=bi
- American Cancer Society. Screening Tests for Prostate Cancer [Internet]. Unknown: American Cancer Society; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/tests.html
- Today I Found Out: Feed Your Brain. Can a Man Test Positive on a Pregnancy Test? [Internet]. Unknown: Today I Found Out; Unknown [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:
Some of the pictures in this article were contributed by a young engineer who draws God-inspired comics with biblical themes. Enjoy this talented brother’s artwork on his Instagram page Theopaintus Ming.
Much appreciation to someone dear to me who edited this article, and provided valuable feedback and suggestion for improvement.
How accurate, reliable and valid is the Bible actually? Check out: https://kenboa.org/apologetics/how-accurate-is-the-bible/
Further Reading on why Jesus Appears to Have Two Different Genealogies: https://zondervanacademic.com/blog/why-are-jesus-genealogies-in-matthew-and-luke-different?fbclid=IwAR39W2q2phD9VTLYKb-ArigySqUChTFdn_a-2T7-4WmpjGncuBQHS64noE4
Did Mary remain a virgin after giving birth to Jesus? https://answersingenesis.org/bible-characters/is-the-perpetual-virginity-of-mary-a-biblical-view/